The book is an overview of the major subfields and concepts in physics, including a brief outline of the history of physics and its subfields.

Physics (from Greek from φυσικός (phusikos): natural, from φύσις (fysis): Nature) is the science of Nature in the broadest sense. Physicists study the behaviour and interactions of matter and radiation. Theories of physics are generally expressed as mathematical relations. Well-established theories are often referred to as physical laws or laws of physics; however, like all scientific theories, they are ultimately provisional. Physics is very closely related to the other natural sciences, particularly chemistry. The book is an overview of the major subfields and concepts in physics, including a brief outline of the history of physics and its subfields.

CONTENTS:

Physics Help

– Overview of physics

– – Theories

– – – Central theories

– – – Proposed theories

– – – Fringe theories

– – Concepts

– – Fundamental forces

– – Particles

– – Subfields of physics

– – Methods

– – Tables

– – History

– – Related Fields

Physics

– A brief history of physics

– Future directions

Theoretical physics

– Mainstream theories

– Proposed theories

– Fringe theories

Central theories

Classical mechanics

– Description of the theory

– – Position and its derivatives

– – Forces; Newton’s Second Law

– – Energy

– – Further results

– History

– Further Reading

Thermodynamics

– The Laws of Thermodynamics

– Basics

– – Substances describable by temperature alone

– – Substances describable by temperature and pressure alone

– – Substances describable by temperature, pressure and chemical potential

– – Substances describable by temperature and magnetic field

– – Links

– Thermodynamic Systems

– Thermodynamic State

Statistical mechanics

Electromagnetism

– Mathematical Description

– The Electric Field E

– – Electromagnetic Method

Special relativity

– Motivation for the theory of special relativity

– Invariance of the speed of light

– Lack of an absolute reference frame

– Equivalence of mass and energy

– Simultaneity

– Status of Special Relativity

– The Geometry of Space-time in Special Relativity

– Tests of postulates of special relativity

– Related Topics

General relativity

– Foundations of Relativity and Special Relativity

– Outline of the Theory

– The vierbein formulation of general relativity

– Suggested further reading

Quantum mechanics

– Description of the theory

– Mathematical formulation

– Interactions with other theories of physics

– Applications

– Philosophical debate

– History

– Some quotations

Quantum field theory

– Shortcomings of ordinary quantum mechanics

– Quantum fields

– Wightman axioms

– Suggested reading

– Standard Model

Standard Model

– Content of the Standard Model

– Tests and predictions

– Challenges to the Standard Model

– Further Reading

Fluid mechanics

– See also

Proposed theories

Theory of everything

– Speculative ideas

Grand unification theory

M-theory

– M-theory’s relation to superstrings and supergravity

– Characteristics of M-theory

Loop quantum gravity

– The incompatibility between quantum mechanics and general relativity

– Wilson loops and spin networks

– LQG and quantum cosmology

– Experimental tests of LQG?

– People in LQG and related areas

– Bibliography

Emergence

– Bibliography

Fringe theories

Cold fusion

– References

Dynamic theory of gravity

– Books

Luminiferous aether

– Disadvantages and Critics

– Aether theory postulate experiments

– Timeline

– Classical References

Orgone energy

– Reich’s development of his orgone theories

– Status of Reich’s books

– Bibliography

Reciprocal System of Theory

Steady state theory

Concepts

Matter

– See also

Antimatter

Elementary particle

– See also

Boson

Fermion

Energy

– Kinetic energy

– Heat

– Potential energy

– Chemical energy

– Electrical energy

– Electromagnetic radiation

– Mass

– Further reading

Symmetry

– Symmetry in physics

Motion

Conservation laws

– Philosophy of Conservation Laws

Mass

– Inertial Mass

– Gravitational Mass

– Equivalence of Inertial and Gravitational Masses

– Consequences of Relativity

Momentum

– Momentum in classical mechanics

– Momentum in relativistic mechanics

– Momentum in quantum mechanics

– Figurative use

Angular momentum

Spin

– History

– Application

Dimension

Time

– Measurement of time

– Time in engineering and applied physics

– Time in philosophy and theoretical physics

– Perception of time

– Books

Space

Spacetime

– Reference frame

– – Some general facts about spacetimes

– – Is Spacetime Quantized?

– – Space-time vs. Spacetime

– Related concepts

Length

Velocity

Force

– More depth

– Relationships between force units and mass units

– Imperial units of force

– Conversion between SI and imperial units of force

Torque

Wave

– Examples of waves

– Characteristic properties

– Transverse and longitudinal waves

– – Polarization

– Physical description of a wave

– – Travelling waves

– – The wave equation

Wavefunction

Quantum entanglement

– Formalism

– Entropy

– Ensembles

Harmonic oscillator

– Introduction

– Full Mathematical Definition

– – Simple Harmonic Oscillator

– – Driven Harmonic Oscillator

– – Damped Harmonic Oscillator

– – Damped, Driven Harmonic Oscillator

Magnetism

– Units related to magnetism

– Magnetic Dipoles

– Models of Magnetic Material

– See also

Electricity

– History

– Electric power

– Electric current

– Electrical phenomena in nature

– Terminology Issues

Electromagnetic radiation

Temperature

– Units of Temperature

– Theoretical foundation of temperature

– – Zeroth-Law definition of temperature

– – Second-Law definition of temperature

– Heat capacity

– Negative Temperatures

– Temperature in gases

– Temperature Measurement

Thermodynamic entropy

– Thermodynamic definition of entropy

– – Entropy change in heat engines

– – Entropy as a state function

– Statistical definition of entropy: Boltzmann’s Principle

– – Entropy as a measure of disorder

– – Counting of microstates

– Measuring Entropy

– References

Physical information

– Information

– Classical vs. Quantum Information

– Classical Information

– Physical Information and Entropy

– References

Transition

Phase transition

– Classification of phase transitions

– – Ehrenfest classification

– – Modern classification of phase transitions

– Properties of phase transitions

– – Critical points

– – Symmetry

– – Critical exponents and universality classes

Critical phenomena

Spontaneous symmetry breaking

Superconductivity

– Elementary properties of superconductors

– – Zero electrical resistance

– – Superconducting phase transition

– – Meissner effect

– Theories of superconductivity

– History of superconductivity

– Technological applications of superconductivity

– References

– – Selected papers

Superfluid

Quantum phase transitions

Law of physics

Fundamental force

Gravity

– Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation

– – Vector Form

– Newton’s Reservations

– Comparison with electromagnetic force

– Self-gravitating system

– History

– Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity

– Quantum Mechanics and Waves

Weak nuclear force

Strong interaction

Particle

– Standard Model

– – Fundamental fermions

– – – Antiparticles

– – – Quarks

– – Fundamental bosons

– – – Gluons

– – – Electroweak bosons

– – – Higgs boson

– Beyond the Standard Model

– – Grand unification

– – Supersymmetry

– – String theory

– – Preon theory

– Links and References

– – Reference

Atom

– Models of the atom

Atomic nucleus

Proton

Neutron

– Discovery

– Current developments

Electron

– History

– Technical details

– Electricity

– See also

Quark

Photon

– see also

Gluon

W and Z bosons

Graviton

Neutrino

– Neutrino detectors

Particle radiation

Phonon

– Non-interacting phonons

– – Modelling a lattice

– – Lattice waves

– – One-dimensional phonons

– – Dispersion relation

– – Three-dimensional phonons

– – Crystal momentum

– – The phonon gas

– Phonon behavior

– – Acoustic and optical phonons

Roton

Subfields of physics

Astrophysics

Theoretical astrophysics

Atomic, molecular, and optical physics

Computational physics

Condensed matter physics

Cosmology

– Physical cosmology

– Alternative cosmologies

– Philosophical cosmology

– Religious cosmology

Cryogenics

Polymer physics

Optics

– Classical Optics

– Modern Optics

– Other Optical Fields

– Everyday optics

Materials physics

Mechanics

– Disciplines of Mechanics

Acoustic theory

Continuum mechanics

Nuclear physics

Plasma physics

Particle physics

– History of particle physics

– The Standard Model of particle physics

– Experimental particle physics

– Objections against particle physics as reductionism

– Public policy and particle physics

Vehicle dynamics

– Definitions

– Performance Driving Techniques

Methods

Scientific method

– Introduction

– The idealized scientific method

– – Observation

– – Hypothesis

– – Prediction

– – Verification

– – Evaluation

– Other aspects of method

Physical quantity

Measurement

Measuring instrument

Dimensional analysis

– Worked example

– References

Statistics

Tables

List of laws in science

Physical constant

– References

SI

– Origin

– SI writing style

– Notes

SI base unit

– Length (l)

– Mass (m)

– Time (t)

– Electric current (I)

– Thermodynamic temperature (T)

– Amount of substance (n)

– Luminous Intensity (I)

SI derived unit

SI prefix

– Use outside SI

– – Non-SI units

– – Computing

Conversion of units

Physical unit

– Units as dimensions

– Basic and derived units

– Conversion of units

– Prefixes in the SI system

– Calculations with units

History of physics

– History of Physics

– Antiquity

– The Middle Ages & Islamic contibutions to the Sciences

– 16th century

– 17th century

– 18th century

– 19th century

– 20th century

– Developments since 1990

– Developments since 2000

Physicist

List of physicists

Nobel Prize in Physics

– 1900s

– 1910s

– 1920s

– 1930s

– 1940s

– 1950s

– 1960s

– 1970s

– 1980s

– 1990s

– 2000s

Unsolved problems in physics

Related fields

Astronomy

– Divisions of astronomy

– – By subject

– – Ways of obtaining information

– Short history

– Astronomy Tools

Biophysics

– Topics in biophysics and related fields

– Notable biophysicists

Electronics

– Electronic Test Equipment

– Interconnecting Electronic Components

– Passive Components

– Active Components (solid-state)

– Active Components (thermionic)

– Electromechanical Sensors and Actuators

– Thermoelectric devices

– Photoelectric devices

– Antennae etc.

– Analog circuits

– Digital circuits

– Mixed-signal circuits

– Noise

– Electronics Theory

Engineering

– The task of engineering

– – Problem solving

– – Use of computers

– Etymology

– Connections to other disciplines

– Tools

– Methods

Geophysics

Materials science

– Core Topics in Materials Science:

Mathematical physics

Medical physics

Physical chemistry

– Important Physical-chemists

– Literature

Philosophy of physics

License

– GNU Free Documentation License

About the author

– Nicolae Sfetcu

– – Contact

Publishing House

– MultiMedia Publishing

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